We are supporting a food physiology experiment on the ISS to understand the impact that spaceflight has on human physiology, especially on the immune system. The study will compare the current diet with a new enhanced diet that accounts for spaceflight’s effect on the immune system, the gut microbiome, and nutritional status. The astronauts will send biological samples and data back to scientists on Earth for evaluation. Ultimately, they hope to discover if dietary changes can boost crew members’ health and decrease the dangers to them on long-duration missions.